Monitoring a Cluster

Once you have a running cluster, you may use the ceph tool to monitor your cluster. Monitoring a cluster typically involves checking OSD status, monitor status, placement group status and metadata server status.

Interactive Mode

To run the ceph tool in interactive mode, type ceph at the command line with no arguments. For example:

ceph
ceph> health
ceph> status
ceph> quorum_status
ceph> mon_status

Checking Cluster Health

After you start your cluster, and before you start reading and/or writing data, check your cluster’s health first. You can check on the health of your Ceph cluster with the following:

ceph health

If you specified non-default locations for your configuration or keyring, you may specify their locations:

ceph -c /path/to/conf -k /path/to/keyring health

Upon starting the Ceph cluster, you will likely encounter a health warning such as HEALTH_WARN XXX num placement groups stale. Wait a few moments and check it again. When your cluster is ready, ceph health should return a message such as HEALTH_OK. At that point, it is okay to begin using the cluster.

Watching a Cluster

To watch the cluster’s ongoing events, open a new terminal. Then, enter:

ceph -w

Ceph will print each event. For example, a tiny Ceph cluster consisting of one monitor, and two OSDs may print the following:

cluster b370a29d-9287-4ca3-ab57-3d824f65e339
 health HEALTH_OK
 monmap e1: 1 mons at {ceph1=10.0.0.8:6789/0}, election epoch 2, quorum 0 ceph1
 osdmap e63: 2 osds: 2 up, 2 in
  pgmap v41338: 952 pgs, 20 pools, 17130 MB data, 2199 objects
        115 GB used, 167 GB / 297 GB avail
             952 active+clean

2014-06-02 15:45:21.655871 osd.0 [INF] 17.71 deep-scrub ok
2014-06-02 15:45:47.880608 osd.1 [INF] 1.0 scrub ok
2014-06-02 15:45:48.865375 osd.1 [INF] 1.3 scrub ok
2014-06-02 15:45:50.866479 osd.1 [INF] 1.4 scrub ok
2014-06-02 15:45:01.345821 mon.0 [INF] pgmap v41339: 952 pgs: 952 active+clean; 17130 MB data, 115 GB used, 167 GB / 297 GB avail
2014-06-02 15:45:05.718640 mon.0 [INF] pgmap v41340: 952 pgs: 1 active+clean+scrubbing+deep, 951 active+clean; 17130 MB data, 115 GB used, 167 GB / 297 GB avail
2014-06-02 15:45:53.997726 osd.1 [INF] 1.5 scrub ok
2014-06-02 15:45:06.734270 mon.0 [INF] pgmap v41341: 952 pgs: 1 active+clean+scrubbing+deep, 951 active+clean; 17130 MB data, 115 GB used, 167 GB / 297 GB avail
2014-06-02 15:45:15.722456 mon.0 [INF] pgmap v41342: 952 pgs: 952 active+clean; 17130 MB data, 115 GB used, 167 GB / 297 GB avail
2014-06-02 15:46:06.836430 osd.0 [INF] 17.75 deep-scrub ok
2014-06-02 15:45:55.720929 mon.0 [INF] pgmap v41343: 952 pgs: 1 active+clean+scrubbing+deep, 951 active+clean; 17130 MB data, 115 GB used, 167 GB / 297 GB avail

The output provides:

  • Cluster ID
  • Cluster health status
  • The monitor map epoch and the status of the monitor quorum
  • The OSD map epoch and the status of OSDs
  • The placement group map version
  • The number of placement groups and pools
  • The notional amount of data stored and the number of objects stored; and,
  • The total amount of data stored.

How Ceph Calculates Data Usage

The used value reflects the actual amount of raw storage used. The xxx GB / xxx GB value means the amount available (the lesser number) of the overall storage capacity of the cluster. The notional number reflects the size of the stored data before it is replicated, cloned or snapshotted. Therefore, the amount of data actually stored typically exceeds the notional amount stored, because Ceph creates replicas of the data and may also use storage capacity for cloning and snapshotting.

Checking a Cluster’s Usage Stats

To check a cluster’s data usage and data distribution among pools, you can use the df option. It is similar to Linux df. Execute the following:

ceph df

The GLOBAL section of the output provides an overview of the amount of storage your cluster uses for your data.

  • SIZE: The overall storage capacity of the cluster.
  • AVAIL: The amount of free space available in the cluster.
  • RAW USED: The amount of raw storage used.
  • % RAW USED: The percentage of raw storage used. Use this number in conjunction with the full ratio and near full ratio to ensure that you are not reaching your cluster’s capacity. See Storage Capacity for additional details.

The POOLS section of the output provides a list of pools and the notional usage of each pool. The output from this section DOES NOT reflect replicas, clones or snapshots. For example, if you store an object with 1MB of data, the notional usage will be 1MB, but the actual usage may be 2MB or more depending on the number of replicas, clones and snapshots.

  • NAME: The name of the pool.
  • ID: The pool ID.
  • USED: The notional amount of data stored in kilobytes, unless the number appends M for megabytes or G for gigabytes.
  • %USED: The notional percentage of storage used per pool.
  • Objects: The notional number of objects stored per pool.

Note

The numbers in the POOLS section are notional. They are not inclusive of the number of replicas, shapshots or clones. As a result, the sum of the USED and %USED amounts will not add up to the RAW USED and %RAW USED amounts in the GLOBAL section of the output.

Checking a Cluster’s Status

To check a cluster’s status, execute the following:

ceph status

Or:

ceph -s

In interactive mode, type status and press Enter.

ceph> status

Ceph will print the cluster status. For example, a tiny Ceph cluster consisting of one monitor, and two OSDs may print the following:

cluster b370a29d-9287-4ca3-ab57-3d824f65e339
 health HEALTH_OK
 monmap e1: 1 mons at {ceph1=10.0.0.8:6789/0}, election epoch 2, quorum 0 ceph1
 osdmap e63: 2 osds: 2 up, 2 in
  pgmap v41332: 952 pgs, 20 pools, 17130 MB data, 2199 objects
        115 GB used, 167 GB / 297 GB avail
               1 active+clean+scrubbing+deep
             951 active+clean

Checking OSD Status

You can check OSDs to ensure they are up and in by executing:

ceph osd stat

Or:

ceph osd dump

You can also check view OSDs according to their position in the CRUSH map.

ceph osd tree

Ceph will print out a CRUSH tree with a host, its OSDs, whether they are up and their weight.

# id    weight  type name       up/down reweight
-1      3       pool default
-3      3               rack mainrack
-2      3                       host osd-host
0       1                               osd.0   up      1
1       1                               osd.1   up      1
2       1                               osd.2   up      1

For a detailed discussion, refer to Monitoring OSDs and Placement Groups.

Checking Monitor Status

If your cluster has multiple monitors (likely), you should check the monitor quorum status after you start the cluster before reading and/or writing data. A quorum must be present when multiple monitors are running. You should also check monitor status periodically to ensure that they are running.

To see display the monitor map, execute the following:

ceph mon stat

Or:

ceph mon dump

To check the quorum status for the monitor cluster, execute the following:

ceph quorum_status

Ceph will return the quorum status. For example, a Ceph cluster consisting of three monitors may return the following:

{ "election_epoch": 10,
  "quorum": [
        0,
        1,
        2],
  "monmap": { "epoch": 1,
      "fsid": "444b489c-4f16-4b75-83f0-cb8097468898",
      "modified": "2011-12-12 13:28:27.505520",
      "created": "2011-12-12 13:28:27.505520",
      "mons": [
            { "rank": 0,
              "name": "a",
              "addr": "127.0.0.1:6789\/0"},
            { "rank": 1,
              "name": "b",
              "addr": "127.0.0.1:6790\/0"},
            { "rank": 2,
              "name": "c",
              "addr": "127.0.0.1:6791\/0"}
           ]
    }
}

Checking MDS Status

Metadata servers provide metadata services for Ceph FS. Metadata servers have two sets of states: up | down and active | inactive. To ensure your metadata servers are up and active, execute the following:

ceph mds stat

To display details of the metadata cluster, execute the following:

ceph mds dump

Checking Placement Group States

Placement groups map objects to OSDs. When you monitor your placement groups, you will want them to be active and clean. For a detailed discussion, refer to Monitoring OSDs and Placement Groups.

Using the Admin Socket

The Ceph admin socket allows you to query a daemon via a socket interface. By default, Ceph sockets reside under /var/run/ceph. To access a daemon via the admin socket, login to the host running the daemon and use the following command:

ceph --admin-daemon /var/run/ceph/{socket-name}

To view the available admin socket commands, execute the following command:

ceph --admin-daemon /var/run/ceph/{socket-name} help

The admin socket command enables you to show and set your configuration at runtime. See Viewing a Configuration at Runtime for details.

Additionally, you can set configuration values at runtime directly (i.e., the admin socket bypasses the monitor, unlike ceph {daemon-type} tell {id} injectargs, which relies on the monitor but doesn’t require you to login directly to the host in question ).